Session 1: Geoscience
Geoscience is the scientific study of the planet Earth and its many different natural geologic systems. It includes the study and investigation of Earth’s minerals, soil, water and energy resources: how Earth’s natural systems work today, how they operated in the recent and ancient past, and how we expect they may behave in the future. Geoscience is real-world science, relevant to us all, every day.
Our Earth has been around for more than four billion years so there’s a lot of information to work with. Some geoscientists work in a traditional broad area of Earth science like geology, geophysics, geochemistry and environmental geoscience. Others practice geoscience in one of many specialized areas, such as volcanology (volcanoes), paleontology (fossils) or geochronology (age-dating rocks); or they work in a new emerging discipline such as medical or forensic geology. What’s important to remember is that there are many different types of geoscientists and different forms of geoscience practice.
Session 2: Waste Management
Waste management is the process of treating solid wastes and offers variety of solutions for recycling items that don’t belong to trash. It is about how garbage can be used as a valuable resource. Waste management is something that each and every household and business owner in the world needs. Waste management disposes of the products and substances that you have use in a safe and efficient manner.
“Waste management or Waste disposal is all the activities and actions required to manage waste from its inception to its final disposal. This includes amongst other things, collection, transport, treatment and disposal of waste together with monitoring and regulation. It also encompasses the legal and regulatory framework that relates to waste management encompassing guidance on recycling etc.”
You will find there are eight major groups of waste management methods, each of them divided into numerous categories. Those groups include source reduction and reuse, animal feeding, recycling, composting, fermentation, landfills, incineration and land application. You can start using many techniques right at home, like reduction and reuse, which works to reduce the amount of disposable material used.
Session 3: Geology, Geochemistry & Geophysics
The study of the solid Earth and the oceans, and the processes that shape them, is fundamental to understanding the Earth & Environment as an evolving system. The Earth holds natural resources that are vital to modern civilization, and it creates natural hazards that affect our lives. The solid earth interacts with the hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere through myriad geological processes including tectonics, volcanism, weathering, and erosion. We study both modern and ancient processes and conditions through the lens of geological, geochemical, and geophysical observations at field sites around the globe and in our laboratories. Research in this broad field explores the geologic record of 4.5 billion years of Earth evolution from the deep mantle to the surface, and encompasses phenomena ranging from earthquakes and volcanic eruptions to the slow erosion of mountains and coastlines, and structures ranging in size from individual mineral grains to entire planets.
Session 4: Waste Water Management
Water resources are under pressure from continuing population growth and urbanisation, rapid industralisation, and expanding and intensifying food production, particularly in developing countries and in urban areas. Urban populations may nearly double from current 3.4 billion to 6.4 billion by 2050. Numbers of people living in slums will rise even faster, with most of the rapid expansion in urbanization taking place not in megacities (21 of the world’s 33 megacities are on the coast), but in small and medium sized cities with populations of less than 500 000. World’s water resource will not change but the amount of wastewater produced is increasing, and the infrastructure and management systems are not adequate for this increasing volume. Globally, two million tons of sewage, industrial and agricultural waste is discharged into the world’s waterways, and that is not counting the unregulated or illegal discharge of contaminated water. This wastewater contaminates freshwater and coastal ecosystems, threatening food security, access to safe drinking and bathing water and being a major health and environmental management challenge.
Session 5: Waste to Energy
The increasing industrialization, urbanization and changes in the pattern of life, which accompany the process of economic growth, give rise to generation of increasing quantities of wastes leading to increased threats to the environment. In recent years, technologies have been developed that not only help in generating substantial quantity of decentralized energy but also in reducing the quantity of waste for its safe disposal.
The Ministry is promoting all the Technology Options available for setting up projects for recovery of energy from urban wastes. In developed countries, environmental concerns rather than energy recovery is the prime motivator for waste-to-energy facilities, which help in treating and disposing of wastes. Energy in the form of biogas, heat or power is seen as a bonus, which improves the viability of such projects. While incineration and biomethanation are the most common technologies, pyrolysis and gasification are also emerging as preferred options. A common feature in most developed countries is that the entire waste management system is being handled as a profitable venture by private industry or non-government organizations with tipping fee for treatment of waste being one of the major revenue streams. The major Advantages for adopting technologies for recovery of energy from urban wastes is to reduce the quantity of waste and net reduction in environmental pollution, besides generation of substantial quantity of energy.
Session 6: Soil Science
Soil science deals with soil as a natural resource on the surface of the earth including soil formation, classification and mapping; physical, chemical, biological, and fertility properties of soils per se; and these properties in relation to the use and management of soils. Sometimes terms which refer to branches of soil science, such as pedology (formation, chemistry, morphology and classification of soil) and edaphology (influence of soil on organisms, especially plants), are used as if synonymous with soil science. The diversity of names associated with this discipline is related to the various associations concerned. Indeed, engineers, agronomists, chemists, geologists, geographers, biologists, microbiologists, sylviculturists, sanitarians, archaeologists, and specialists in regional planning, all contribute to further knowledge of soils and the advancement of the soil sciences.
Session 7: Recycling techniques
Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3–4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide.
Session 8: Groundwater and Hydrogeology
Hydrogeology is the study of the movement and storage of water in the crust of Earth and other rocky planetary bodies. It maps and quantifies the water stored in underground aquifers and occasionally surface systems, identifies pathways of flow and recharge, and assesses the chemical composition and quality of the below-ground water.
Groundwater represents an important parameter in the geotechnical engineering. The groundwater level has a major influence on material behavior (drained-undrained), and changes in groundwater level can result in settlements and damage to buildings and infrastructure. An artesian pore pressure, or excess pore pressure in the ground, will of course have a major impact on the material behavior and stability.
Groundwater is an important resource, even though in most of the larger Norwegian water works use surface water as a raw water source. In transportation projects cuts and terrain changes may affect groundwater level in such a way that it causes changes in the vegetation and the quantity and quality of drinking water in private groundwater wells in adjacent areas.
Session 9: Agricultural Wastes
Agricultural wastes (AW) can be defined as the residues from the growing and first processing of raw agricultural products such as fruits, vegetables, meat, poultry, dairy products and crops. AW can be in the form of solid, liquid or slurries depending on the nature of agricultural activities. Agricultural industry residues and wastes constitute a significant proportion of worldwide agricultural productivity. Although the quantity of wastes produced by the agricultural sector is significantly low compared to wastes generated by other industries, the pollution potential of agricultural wastes is high on a long-term basis. The opportunity and feasibility for recycling these wastes comes from two directions: the care for environment reflected by new sets of rules and regulation and the potential to add value to these wastes by adding positive elements. Moreover, they can be used as precursors in many other sectors such as membranes, biosorbents or activated carbons for the removal of dyes, organic molecules, heavy metals and fertilizers. Different types of agricultural wastes, i.e., deoiled soya, coconut shell, neem leaves, hyacinth roots, rice husk, rice straw, rice bran, lemon leaf, tea waste, potato plants wastes, tomato wastes, sesame hull, garlic peel, peanut hull, carrot stem, carrot leave, barley straw, banana stalk, olive stones, almond shells, peach stones, apricot stones, cherry stones, grape seeds, Trapa natans husk, bamboo, doum-palm seed coat, walnut shells, rose seed, pine sawdust and coir pith are ideal raw materials for different industrial applications due to their low cost, non-toxic content and their abundance. The final products derived from agricultural wastes have shown equal or even better properties compared to conventional products concerning separation, adsorption and fertility.
Session 10: Fossils and Paleontology
Paleontology is the study of the history of life on Earth as based on fossils. Fossils are the remains of plants, animals, fungi, bacteria, and single-celled living things that have been replaced by rock material or impressions of organisms preserved in rock.
Fossils can provide evidence of the evolutionary history of organisms. Paleontologists infer that whales evolved from land-dwelling animals, for instance. Fossils of extinct animals closely related to whales have front limbs like paddles, similar to front legs. They even have tiny back limbs. Although the front limbs of these fossil animals are in some ways similar to legs, in other ways they also show strong similarities to the fins of modern whales.
Paleontologists use fossil remains to understand different aspects of extinct and living organisms. Individual fossils may contain information about an organism’s life and environment. Much like the rings of a tree, for example, each ring on the surface of an oyster shell denotes one year of its life. Studying oyster fossils can help paleontologists discover how long the oyster lived, and in what conditions. If the climate was favorable for the oyster, the oyster probably grew more quickly and the rings would be thicker. If the oyster struggled for survival, the rings would be thinner. Thinner rings would indicate an environment not favorable to organisms like the oyster—too warm or too cold, for example, or lacking nutrients necessary for them to grow.
Session 11: Industrial Waste Recycling
Recycling your industrial waste -- be it hazardous or non-hazardous -- offers many benefits to organization. Recycling reduces the costs you would otherwise incur disposing of unused materials and byproducts. Recycling can provide you with a steady, dependable stream. Recycling can help your company reach its environmental goals and improve company's standing with local governments and the community at large.
A long-time leader in industrial materials recycling, Waste Management can optimize your organization's recycling program a number of ways:
Identifying your facility's waste streams. Our first step is to identify and catalog the types and volumes of industrial materials and byproducts your facilities produce. Once we know exactly the types of materials in question, we can devise an appropriate recycling program for managing them.
Determining how your waste is regulated. The definitions and corresponding regulations of industrial materials can vary from state to state. We will determine what wastes must be classified as hazardous, and which can be categories as non-hazardous. In some cases, we can have waste recategorized from hazardous to non-hazardous, which makes recycling much easier.
Finding markets for your recyclable materials. As a Waste Management customer, you'll be able to tap markets worldwide. We regularly remarket industrial materials to buyers in Europe, Asia, South America and Australia. Our vast buyer network ensures you get the best possible price for the byproducts you produce.
Waste Management is a responsible industrial waste recycler. We adhere to all domestic and international regulations governing the remarketing of industrial products. We also provide detailed documentation that lets you track the success of your industrial waste recycling program.
Session 12: Volcanology and Tectonic Plates
A volcano is an opening in the earth's crust that allows molten rock from the mantle to flow out onto the surface as lava. Volcanoes also emit vast amounts of gas, primarily carbon dioxide, water vapor and sulfur dioxide. The fine solid rock particles injected into the atmosphere by an eruption can remain aloft for years.
Volcanoes are associated with three types of tectonic structures: convergent plate boundaries, divergent plate boundaries and hot spots. California has all three. The SAF is a transform plate boundary (strike slip fault)and so is not accompanied by volcanic activity.
The Gorda Plate is subducting under the North American Plate north of Cape Mendocino and is the cause of the state's two active volcanoes, Mt Shasta and Mt. Lassen. Immediately north, the Juan de Fuca Plate is subducting under North America and is responsible for the Cascade Range Volcanoes. The 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens was a vivid reminder that the continental US has active volcanoes, 169 of them. In Alaska, the Pacific Plate is subducting under the North American Plate, making the famously active string of volcanoes of the Aleutian Islands.
Session 13: Chemical Waste Recycling
Chemical waste is Definitions, management practices and compliance are outlined in 40 Code of Federal Regulations and the Delaware Rules Governing Hazardous Waste. Chemical waste is a broad term and encompasses many types of materials. Consult your Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS), Product Data Sheet or Label for a list of constituents. These sources will tell you if you have a chemical waste that needs special disposal. To reduce its long-term liability, the University is proactive in managing all of its chemical waste in an environmentally sound manner.
Session 14: Geomechanics, Geotechnics and Geohazards
Geomechanics is the theoretical and applied science of the mechanical behavior of geological material. It is used to reduce risks and optimize rewards related to the mechanical failure of the reservoir, over, side and under burden formations due to oil and gas exploration and production activities. These include but not limited to, drilling of oil and gas wells, hydraulic fracturing, water/gas flooding, depletion. A geological formation will fail when the stresses it is subjected to, exceed its strength.
Geotechnical engineering is the study of the properties of rocks and soils with a view to build engineering structures. Geotechnical engineering, together with soil mechanics, is used by those involved in construction to select the type and characteristics of foundations in order for structures to be safe. The role of foundations is to spread out the weight of a structure and transmit it to the soil. In some cases it also performs an anchorage role to reduce the risks of the structure lifting or slipping.
‘Geohazards’ means the risk of damage caused by a geological process. Sometimes hazards are not obvious until pointed out. For example we wash our hands to avoid biohazards such as viruses and bacteria even though they are too small to see. We are told that some foods are poisonous (a biohazard) so we don’t eat them. All geological hazards (geohazards) could be considered dormant until they are triggered. When the hazard occurs it may then be called an event, accident, emergency, incident, or disaster. The study and monitoring of geohazards helps us to better prepare ourselves and respond to these geological events when they do occur. Geohazards can be small features that have an impact only on their local area such as a small landslide that partially blocks a road or track through to large earthquakes that affect entire cities.
Session 15: Paper and Plastic Recycling
Plastic recycling refers to the process of recovering waste or scrap plastic and reprocessing the materials into functional and useful products. This activity is known as the plastic recycling process. The goal of recycling plastic is to reduce high rates of plastic pollution while putting less pressure on virgin materials to produce brand new plastic products. This approach helps to conserve resources and diverts plastics from landfills or unintended destinations such as oceans.
Paper recycling pertains to the processes of reprocessing waste paper for reuse. Waste papers are either obtained from paper mill paper scraps, discarded paper materials, and waste paper material discarded after consumer use. Examples of the commonly known papers recycled are old newspapers and magazines.
Other forms like corrugated, wrapping, and packaging papers among other types of paper are usually checked for recycling suitability before the process. The papers are collected from the waste locations then sent to paper recycling facilities. The subtopics below provide a detailed explanation of the steps used in paper recycling.
Session 16: Carbon farming & Carbon Cycle
Carbon farming is the process of changing agricultural practices or land use to increase the amount of carbon stored in the soil and vegetation (sequestration) and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from livestock, soil or vegetation (avoidance). Carbon farming potentially offers landholders financial incentives to reduce carbon pollution, but should always aim to achieve multiple economic and environmental co-benefits. The Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development can provide scientific assessments of the technical feasibility and risks, but anyone contemplating participating in carbon farming should seek appropriate legal and technical advice.
Session 17: Rubber & e-Waste Recycling
Electronic waste (e-waste) typically includes discarded computer monitors, motherboards, mobile phones and chargers, compact discs, headphones, television sets, air conditioners and refrigerators. According to the Global E-Waste Monitor 2017, generates about 10 million tonnes (MT) of e-waste annually Top five among e-waste producing countries, after the US are China, Japan and Germany, India. Only 20 per cent of global e-waste is recycled. The UN report indicates that due to poor extraction techniques, the total recovery rate of cobalt (the metal which is in great demand for laptop, smart phone and electric car batteries) from e-waste is only 30 per cent.
Session 18: Mineral Exploration
The exploration usually starts by looking for interesting exploration zones and by the sampling in geological areas that seem to have an interesting mineral potential. The searches are conducted in order to discover base metals and precious metals. The areas of interest are staked by the exploration company whether by an interactive map or by agreements with prospectors in the area. Before starting work on the ground, it is essential to make an application for a permit to the government agencies in order to comply with regulations. Moreover, according to the location of the studied area on public or private land, permits and agreements are required to ensure compliance with surrounding communities.
Session 19: Petroleum and Oil Recycling
Used oil is exactly what its name implies: any petroleum-based or synthetic oil that has been used. Oil keeps our cars, lawnmowers, and many other machines running smoothly. However, during normal use, impurities such as dirt, metal scrapings, water, or chemicals, can get mixed in with the oil, so that in time, the oil no longer performs well. Eventually, this used oil must be replaced with virgin or re-refined oil to do the job correctly.
· Used motor oil is insoluble, persistent, and can contain toxic chemicals and heavy metals.
· It’s slow to degrade.
· It sticks to everything from beach sand to bird feathers.
· It’s a major source of oil contamination of waterways and can result in pollution of drinking water sources.
Session 20: Marine Geosciences and Oceanography
Marine geoscience is an integration of the disciplines of geology, geophysics and geochemistry. The aim of this course is to provide a broad understanding of the ocean basins and their structure with particular emphasis on the evolution of the oceans through time. The unit has field, laboratory and computer based components to enable students to gain a broad based knowledge of the techniques used to unravel ocean history through time.
Oceanography, scientific discipline concerned with all aspects of the world’s oceans and seas, including their physical and chemical properties, their origin and geologic framework, and the life forms that inhabit the marine environment. Oceanography has been divided into four separate but related branches: physical oceanography, chemical oceanography, marine geology, and marine ecology. Physical oceanography deals with the properties of seawater (temperature, density, pressure, and so on), its movement (waves, currents, and tides), and the interactions between the ocean waters and the atmosphere. Chemical oceanography has to do with the composition of seawater and the biogeochemical cycles that affect it. Marine geology focuses on the structure, features, and evolution of the ocean basins. Marine ecology, also called biological oceanography, involves the study of the plants and animals of the sea, including life cycles and food production.
Session 21: Domestic Waste Management
The problem of Domestic Waste is drawing increasing attention of the people as huge garbage is lying down uncollected beside the roads, streets dustbins and on the ground which is causing threat to the environment as well as endangering public health.
This waste is generated as consequences of household activities such as the cleaning, cooking, repairing empty containers, packaging, huge use of plastic carry bags. Many times these waste gets mixed with biomedical waste from hospitals and clinics. There is no system of segregation of organic, inorganic and recyclable wastes at the household level. Door-to-door collection is rarely practiced community collection bins are poorly managed and are usually no more than open dumps on the roadside.
The improper handling and management of Domestic Waste from households are causing adverse effect on the public at large and this deteriorates the environment.
The municipal workers are most affected people by the occupational danger (hazard) of waste handling, they suffer from illness like eye problems respiratory problems, gastro and skin problems. The persons who wander for collecting the discarded things for selling purpose through wastes also suffer from various health problems like respiratory problem from inhaling particles, infection from direct contact with contaminated materials which lead to headache, diarrhea, fever and cough and cold.
Session 22: Seismology
Seismology is the study of seismic waves, energy waves caused by rock suddenly breaking apart within the earth or the slipping of tectonic plates. We know these as events as earthquakes. They can also be caused by explosions from volcanic eruptions and testing of nuclear bombs. Seismology also studies seismic waves deliberately induced by controlled explosions, large trucks, and construction equipment, usually to search for underground sources of petroleum and natural gas.
Seismologists study earthquakes and their results, like tsunamis, and landslides. They may also monitor active volcanoes for tremors and signs of an impending eruption. They use seismographs and computer equipment to collect and analyze data on seismic events.